If you really wanted to, and if you had enough money, you could clone your beloved family cat. At least one biotechnology company in the United States has offered cat cloning services for the privileged and bereaved. But don't assume that your cloned kitty will be exactly the same as the one you know and love. An individual is a product of more than its genes—the environment plays an important role in shaping personality and many other traits.
On December 22, 2001, a kitten named CC made history as the first cat—and the first domestic pet—ever to be cloned. CC and Rainbow, the donor of CC's genetic material, are pictured at the right.
But do you notice something odd about this picture? If CC is a clone of Rainbow—an exact genetic copy—then why are they different colors?
The answer lies in the X chromosome. In cats, a gene that helps determine coat color resides on this chromosome. Both CC and Rainbow, being females, have two X chromosomes. (Males have one X and one Y chromosome.) Since the two cats have the exact same X chromosomes, they have the same two coat color genes, one specifying black and the other specifying orange.
Very early in her development, each of Rainbow's cells "turned off" oneentire X chromosome, thereby turning off either the black or the orange color gene. This process, called X-inactivation, happens normally in females, in order to prevent them from having twice as much X-chromosome activity as males. It also happens randomly, meaning that different cells turn off different X chromosomes.
So like all female mammals, Rainbow developed as a mosaic. Each cell that underwent X-inactivation gave rise to a patch of cells that had oneor the other coat color gene inactivated. Some patches specified black,other patches specified orange, and still others specified white, due to more complex genetic events. This is how all calico cats, like Rainbow, get their markings.
CC looks different because she was made from a somatic cell from Rainbow in which the X-chromosome with the orange gene had been inactivated; only the black gene was active. What's interesting is that, as CC developed, her cells did not change the inactivation pattern. Therefore, unlike Rainbow, CC developed without any cells that specified orange coat color. The result is CC's black and white tiger-tabby coat.
The New Atlantis
Description:The New Atlantis is a quarterly journal about the social, ethical, and political dimensions of modern science and technology. Since its founding in 2003, the journal has been at the center of debates about how to govern science and how to live well and wisely with technological change.
The journal’s name is taken from Francis Bacon’s short story “New Atlantis,” a utopian fable describing a society that enjoys the fruits of what we would now recognize as experimental science. The story raises important questions about science, politics, and society.
The journal brings together several kinds of writing — policy and economic analysis, literary and cultural essays, historical and biographical articles, book reviews, and more — to tackle a wide range of subjects, from the latest scientific controversies and newest technological innovations to the eternal questions of the human condition.
The New Atlantis is published in Washington, D.C. by the Center for the Study of Technology and Society.
Coverage: 2003-2017 (No. 1 - No. 53)
The "moving wall" represents the time period between the last issue available in JSTOR and the most recently published issue of a journal. Moving walls are generally represented in years. In rare instances, a publisher has elected to have a "zero" moving wall, so their current issues are available in JSTOR shortly after publication.
Note: In calculating the moving wall, the current year is not counted.
For example, if the current year is 2008 and a journal has a 5 year moving wall, articles from the year 2002 are available.
- Terms Related to the Moving Wall
- Fixed walls: Journals with no new volumes being added to the archive.
- Absorbed: Journals that are combined with another title.
- Complete: Journals that are no longer published or that have been combined with another title.
Content for this title is released as soon as the latest issues become available to JSTOR.
Subjects: Science & Mathematics, Technology, Political Science, Social Sciences, Philosophy, Humanities
Collections: Arts & Sciences XIV Collection