Railway Bangladesh Assignment Legal

Type

Department of the Government of Bangladesh
IndustryRailways and locomotives
Founded1862
HeadquartersDhaka, Bangladesh

Area served

Bangladesh

Key people

Mohammad Amzad Hossain, Director General of Bangladesh Railway[1]
Revenue৳ 8,002 million[2] (2014)

Net income

৳ - 8,015 million[2] (2014)

Number of employees

27,535[3] (2015)
ParentGovernment of Bangladesh
DivisionsEast Zone and West Zone
Websitewww.railway.gov.bd

Bangladesh Railway (Bengali: বাংলাদেশ রেলওয়ে) is the state owned rail transport agency of Bangladesh. It operates and maintains all railways in the country, and is overseen by the Directorate General of Bangladesh Railway. The Bangladesh Railway is governed by the Ministry of Railways and the Bangladesh Railway Authority. Its reporting mark is "BR".[4]

The Bangladesh Railway system has a total length of 2,855 route km. In 2009, Bangladesh Railway had 34,168 employees.[5]In 2014, Bangladesh Railway carried 65 million passengers and 2.52 million tonnes of freight. The railway made 8,135 million passenger-kilometres and 677 million tonne-kilometres.[2]

History[edit]

Rail transport in Bangladesh began on 15 November, 1862, when 53.11 km of 5 ft 6 in (1,676 mm) (broad gauge) line was opened between Darshana in Chuadanga District and Jogotee in Kushtia District. On 4 January 1885, a further 14.98 km 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in) (metre gauge) line was opened. In 1891, the Bengal Assam Railway was constructed with the assistance of the British Government. It was later run by the Bengal Assam Railway Company.

On 1 July 1895, two sections of metre gauge railway were constructed by English railway companies. One connected Chittagong and Comilla (149.89 km). The other connected Laksam Upazila and Chandpur (50.89 km).[6]

In 1947, at the time of the Partition of India, the Bengal Assam Railway was divided into two parts. The 2,603.92 km of track located in East Pakistan, came under the control of the central Government of Pakistan. On 1 February 1961, the Eastern Bengal Railway was renamed the "Pakistan Eastern Railway". In 1962, control of the Pakistan Eastern Railway was transferred to the Government of East Pakistan. On 9 June 1962, by order of the president, the Pakistan Eastern Railway management was assumed by a Railway Board.[6]

In 2005, the total length of the Bangladesh Railway was 2,855 km.[7] There was 660 km of broad gauge track (mostly in the western region), 1,830 km of metre gauge track (mostly in the central and eastern regions) and 365 km of dual gauge track.[8] In 1998, the Jamuna Bridge was built to connect the previously divided east and west rail networks in dual gauge.[9]

In 2010, funding was received for a bridge over the Titas River.[10] In September 2010, the Government of Bangladesh approved ten rail development projects costing 19·9 billion Bangladeshi taka including plans for new tracks and rolling stock.[11]

In 2011, Sheikh Hasina Wazed, the Prime Minister of Bangledesh, officiated at the start of construction of a link which would cross several rivers to reach Cox's Bazaar. The 100 km of gauge line started from the railhead at Dohazari, southeast of Chittagong. The plan was to reach Satkania, Dulahazra, Chakarin, Edgaon, Ramu and Cox's Bazar, with four major river bridges and a 28 km branch from Ramu to Gundum. In 2013, the Chittagong Circular Railway was completed.

In 2015, construction of a 15 km branch to Agartala, Tripura in Northeast India commenced.[12] In 2017, land acquisition took place to facilitate the construction.[13]

Structure[edit]

From the end of the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971 until 1982, the railway was governed by a Railway Board. It then came under the Railway Division of the Ministry of Communications. The Director General of the railway was the Secretary of the Railway Division of the Ministry of Communications. In 1995, governance of the railway was assumed by the "Bangladesh Railway Authority" which was chaired by the Minister of Railways.[14] Inspections are made by an external government authority.

The features of Bangladesh Railway include the usage of several gauges and the division of the rail system by the Jamuna River, Brahmaputra into the Western Zone and the Eastern Zone of operations. Crossing the river is one bridge, the Jamuna Bridge which was completed in 2003.

The East Zone and the West Zone each have a General Manager who answers to the Director General of the Railway Authority. Each zone has its own raft of departments for operation, maintenance, and finances. Each zone is divided into two divisions with departments for personnel, transportation, commercial, finance mechanical, way and works signalling, telecommunication, electrical and medical services.

The East Zone has a workshop division in Pahartali. The West Zone's workshop division is in Saidpur. The railway has a central locomotive workshop for broad and metre gauge locomotives in Parbatipur. It also has a Railway Training Academy.[14] There is are diesel workshops in Pahartali, Dhaka and Parbatipur. Maintenance on coaches and wagons is carried out at the "C and W" shop in Saidpur, Nilphamari and at the "C and W" shop Pahartali.

Rolling stock[edit]

Locomotives[edit]

Main article: Locomotives of Bangladesh

Diesel[edit]

Bangladesh Railway's fleet of diesel locomotives includes both diesel-electric and diesel-hydraulic machines.[15] In 2007, there were 77 broad gauge diesel-electric locomotives. In 2012, Bangladesh Railway ordered 16 new broad gauge locomotives of 3100hp from Diesel Locomotive Works, India.[16] There were also 208 metre gauge diesel-electric locomotives including those of Class 2000, Class 2600, Class 2700, and Class 2900. The total number was 285.

Steam[edit]

A small number of steam locomotives are preserved in Bangladesh.[17]

LocationBuilderWheel
arrangement
Gauge
Dhaka Railway HQNippon2-8-2Metre gauge
Saidpur WorksW. G. Bagnall2-4-0T2 ft 6 in (762 mm)
Saidpur WorksVulcan Foundry0-6-05 ft 6 in (1,676 mm)
Paksey Railway HQVulcan Foundry?2-4-0T2 ft 6 in (762 mm)

The 762 mm gauge locomotives are from the Rupsa – Bagerhat railway which was the only 762 mm gauge line in East Pakistan in 1947. It was changed to 1,676 mm gauge in 1970.

Freight and cargo services[edit]

As a national carrier, Bangladesh Railway is obliged to carry essential commodities such as grain and fertiliser to remote parts of Bangladesh at discounted rates. Bangladesh Railway transports containers from the Port of Chittagong to Dhaka Inland Container Depot, where there are customs facilities.[18] The rolling stock to carry containers was manufactured from existing stock. On 5 August 1991, a container-only train came into service. A goods train operates from Singhabad and Petrapole, India to Rohanpur and Benapole, Bangladesh.[19]

Accidents[edit]

  • On September 14th, 2016, a freight train derailed in Faujdarhat area. The locomaster and the assistant driver were injured. [20]
  • On July 10th, 2014, one of the major freight train accident happened in that day near Faujdarhat Railway Station at 6.30 am in the morning. A freight train prom Patenga was carrying furnace oil to a power plant. But near Faujdarhat area the train derailed and leaked around 21255 gallons furnace oil. Six wagons of the train derailed and furnace oil from three wagons completely wasted by flowing to a nearby canal. [21]

Passenger services[edit]

Rail is a principal mode of transport in Bangladesh. In the 2005 financial year, 42 million passengers travelled on the Bangladesh Railway.[22] Inter-city services, contribute to over seventy percent of Bangladesh Railway's revenue.[22] In 2014, the railway owned 312 broad gauge coaches and 1,164 metre gauge coaches.[2]

In 2017, Bangladesh Railway operated 90 inter-city trains (up & down), 52 mail or express trains, 64 commuter trains (DEMU), 135 shuttle or local trains and 2 international services.[23]

Two times per week, a passenger train operates a service to India. In April 2008, the Maitri Express between Dhaka and Kolkata came into operation on the Gede – Darsana route.[24] On 9 November 2017, a new weekly train, the Bandhan Express, came into operation between Khulna and Kolkata via Petrapole and Benapole (172 km). A train ferry runs from Baalashi Ghat, Gaibandha District to Baahadurabad Ghat, Jamalpur District.[25]

Tickets for Bangladesh Railway services are available at all stations. Most stations are computerised and tickets which can be purchased within four days of departure, are printed. Full refunds (excluding clerical charges) are available up until two days before departure. The railway reserves ten percent of tickets for online sales. Of these tickets, fifteen percent are reserved for mobile phone sales.[26]

Accidents[edit]

  • On 11 July 2006, a train collided with a crowded bus at an unmanned railroad crossing at Akkelpur Upazila, Jaipurhat District. Thirty-three people died and thirty were injured.
  • On 13 October 2007, the rear carriages of the Probhati Express derailed near Dhaka. Four people died and fifty were injured.
  • On 16 April 2008, a Dinajpur – Dhaka Ekota express train collided with a local bus on a level crossing on the outskirts of Kalihati, Tangail District. Eighteen people died and thirty were injured.
  • On 14 May 2008, an Upaban express train crashed into the rear of a Noakhali express train at the Ashuganj Upazila station, Brahmanbaria District. Eight people died and one hundred were injured.
  • On 8 December 2010, a collision between two passenger trains killed at least ten people.[27]

Accommodation classes[edit]

Bangladesh Railway has three main passenger classes, "Air conditioned", "First" and "Second". Most trains do not provide the "Air conditioned" class. On inter-city and long-distance trains, a restaurant car and a power car are included at the centre of the train. All inter-city trains are partially air-conditioned, feature padded leather seats and provide passengers with on-demand sheets, pillows, blankets, as well as meals in a dining car. Some diesel–electric trains provider commuter services.[28]

ClassDescription
Tapanukul (তাপানুকূল)
First class AC
This is the most expensive class. This air-conditioned coach is used only on popular Inter-City routes. The coaches are carpeted, have sleeping accommodation, ample leg room and have privacy features like personal coupes.
First class (প্রথম শ্রেণী)This class is relatively luxurious, but not air-conditioned; has sleeping berths, and ample leg room.
First class Chair
(প্রথম শ্রেণী চেয়ার)
Chair car or day coach with a total of five seats in a row on broad gauge trains and four seats in a row on metre gauge trains, used for daily travel.
2nd Class-Shovon Chair
(২য় শ্রেণী-শোভন চেয়ার)
The 2nd Class Shovon Chair is basically a chair car preferred by most middle-class passengers. Has a total of five seats in a row on broad gauge trains and four seats in a row on metre gauge trains.
2nd Class-Shovon
(২য় শ্রেণী-শোভন)
One of the cheapest classes; seats are not very comfortable.
2nd Class-Shulov
(২য় শ্রেণী- সুলভ)
The cheapest accommodation, with seats made of pressed wood or steel and are cushioned. Only found in sub-urban and short-distance routes. Although entry into the compartment is guaranteed, a seat is not guaranteed. These coaches are usually very crowded.

List of railway stations in Bangladesh[edit]

Kamalapur Railway Station is the central railway station in Dhaka. In 2015, Bangladesh Railway serviced 489 railway stations. These include one block hut, thirteen train halts and four goods booking points.

  • Jessore railway station, broad gauge junction
  • Santahar railway station, Bogra District, dual gauge junction
  • Abdulpur railway station, Natore District, dual gauge junction
  • Poradoho Jn, Kushtia, broad gauge junction
  • Ahsanganj railway stationNaogaon District
  • Darshana Halt, broad gauge
  • Chuadanga railway station
  • Bheramara railway station, Kushtia, broad gauge
  • Tangail railway station E, dual gauge
  • Iswardi railway station W, broad gauge junction for Sirajganj and Jamuna.
  • Ishwardi bypass W, dual gauge
  • Birampur railway station
  • Lalmonirhat railway station
  • Burimari railway station
  • Pabna railway station
  • Rangpur railway station
  • Kaunia railway junction
  • Dinajpur railway station
  • Chilahati railway station
  • Rajshahi railway station
  • Panchbibi railway station
  • Joypurhat railway station
  • Jamalganj railway station
  • Jafarpur railway station
  • Akkelpur railway Station
  • Rohanpur railway station
  • Sirajganj, W, river port terminus of branch from Iswardi, bypassed by Jamuna Bridge in 2003[29]
  • Hili railway station, W, broad gauge
  • Joydebpur railway station, E, dual gauge junction
  • Syedpur, dual gauge
  • Sylhet railway station, metre gauge
  • Bhairab Bazar, metre gauge
  • Khulna railway station, broad gauge
  • Parbatipur railway station, junction with break of gauge
  • Jamtoeel, E, dual gauge
  • Ullapara railway station
  • Chatmohor railway station
  • Faridpur, SW
  • Khulna railway station, SW, dual gauge
  • Tongi railway junction, E, dual gauge junction just north of Dhaka
  • Dhaka, E, dual gauge since 2007
  • Dewangonj
  • Mymensingh Junction
  • Mohonganj
  • Chittagong, E, metre gauge
  • Bongobondhu Shetu Purbo (East), E, dual gauge
  • Gouripur, Bangladesh, E, meter gauge, junction
  • Laksam Railway Junction E, metre gauge, junction
  • Akhaura railway junction
  • Kulaura railway station, metre gauge, junction
  • Feni, metre gauge, junction
  • Belunia, metre gauge, railway terminus and land port

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Map of Bangladesh railway system (Jamuna Bridge not shown)
Jamuna Express at Kamalapur station
Parabat Express at Sylhet station

Kamalapur Railway Station

Kamalapur railway station at night

Rajshahi railway station

Sylhet Railway Station

Parbatipur Railway Junction Station at Dinajpur District.

Transport is an important part of Bangladesh's economy. Since the liberation of the country, the development of infrastructure has progressed rapidly and a number of land, water and air transport modes exist. However, significant progress must be made to ensure uniform access to all available transport. Unlike other nations, Bangladesh has four ministries responsible for transportation in the country:

The Ministry of Road Transport and Bridges has two divisions: Bridges and Road Transport and Highways.

Road[edit]

See also: List of roads in Bangladesh

With continued economic development, Dhaka (Bangladesh's capital) is beginning to experience severe traffic congestion. This is impacting the quality of life for inhabitants of the metropolitan area, the nation's largest. Many government and public-transport agencies drafted policies, undertook projects and implemented programmes to solve the problem. The Dhaka Integrated Transport Studies, conducted by the Ministry of Planning in 1991–1994, found that the uncoordinated activities of Dhaka City Corporation (DCC), Rajdhani Unnayan Kartripakkha (RAJUK) and the Bangladesh Road Transport Authority (BRTA) did not alleviate the problem and there was no one organisation responsible for improving the city's transport and traffic problems.

With financial assistance from the World Bank, the government of Bangladesh created the Dhaka Transport Coordination Board in 1998. An urban transport plan was commissioned with the US consultant Louis Berger Group and Bangladesh Consultant Ltd (BCL). Introduced in 2008, the comprehensive transport plan for the Greater Dhaka City and its adjoining areas (such as Tongi, Gazipur, Savar, Narayanganj, Keraniganj, Narshingdi and Manikganj) covered around 1,530 square miles (4,000 km2). The plan looked at 15 key policy issues, including safety, pedestrian preferences, public transport, non-motorised transport, travel demand management and mass transit systems, and almost 70 policy recommendations were made. Ten comprehensive transport strategies were evaluated, using a baseline of no Bus rapid transit (BRT) or metro service, and a number of alternatives were explored.[1] The adopted plan included roads, a three-line Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) and three-line BRT. It included provisions for 54 new roads in and around the city, three-part elevated expressways and a circular waterway programme.[2]

Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina inaugurated Bangladesh's highest road, Thanchi-Alikadam Road in Bandarban District, in a 2015 video conference from Dhaka. Construction of The road, which is 2,500 feet (760 m) above sea level, was built under army supervision at a cost of ৳1.17 billion and is aiding development, education and health in the hill tracts.

Traffic congestion[edit]

With more than 250,000 vehicles in Bangladesh and the country's population and infrastructure, traffic congestion wastes fuel and time and makes travel difficult. It also makes existing public transport inefficient, adding unsafe levels of noise and air pollution. Noise and pollution are stressful, and lead to medical conditions such as cardiovascular disease and hypertension.

Traffic congestion varies during the day, necessitating planning and longer trips; this impacts productivity, cutting across social and economic status. Although walking is a major travel mode of the low-income majority, pedestrian needs are ignored in transport planning. As a result of traffic congestion, more people walk and bicycle; however, both may be dangerous. Almost 80 percent of traffic fatalities in Dhaka are pedestrians struck by a fuel-based vehicle.[3] Although private cars are four percent of total vehicles, they occupy about 70 percent of road space. Public transport must be stressed in any future policy. The change to compressed natural gas (CNG) cars saved over 4,000 premature deaths in 2009, but their low cost has increased the number of cars on the roads (although CNG price increases may have tempered the increase) and decreased the amount of natural gas available for other purposes.[4]

Rail[edit]

Rail is as an important method of mass transport in Bangladesh, and many districts are connected by rail. Bangladesh Railway was primarily inherited from the BritishAssam Bengal Railway system after the partition of India in 1947. Its headquarters is in the southern port city of Chittagong, the south-eastern terminus of the Assam Bengal Railway. After independence from West Pakistan in 1971, only a short length of new track was laid.

In 2005, the railway was 2,706 kilometres (1,681 mi) long.[5] Of that, 923 km (574 mi) are broad gauge (1,676mm) tracks (mainly in the western region) and the remaining 1,822 km (1,132 mi) are metre-gauge tracks (mainly in the central and eastern regions). The gauge difference is being addressed by adding third rails to major broad- and metre-gauge routes, making them dual gauge. A road-rail bridge over the Jamuna River opened in 1998 to connect the east and west rail networks.

The border between India and Bangladesh cuts across railway lines, forcing them into the adjacent country for short distances and complicating border controls such as passport validation. After 43 years, the Maitree Express renewed rail transport between Bangladesh and India in 2008; nine years later, a second service began.

Air[edit]

Main articles: List of airlines of Bangladesh and List of airports in Bangladesh

Biman Bangladesh Airlines, the country's national airline, began operation in 1972. Other Bangladeshi-registered passenger airlines are Novoair, Regent Airways and United Airways. All four of the carriers have a hub at Shahjalal International Airport, and operate domestic and international flights.

Bangladesh has three international airports: Shahjalal International Airport in Dhaka, Shah Amanat International Airport in Chittagong and Osmani International Airport in Sylhet. All three have direct connections to Mideast destinations, and Shahjalal also serves the wider Asian region and Europe. In addition to the international airports, there are five domestic airports: in Barisal, Cox's Bazar, Jessore, Rajshahi and Saidpur. Nearly all service at these airports is to (or from) Dhaka.

Water[edit]

There are 5,150–8,046 km (3,200–5,000 mi) of navigable waterways, including 2,575–3,058 km or 1,600–1,900 mi of major cargo routes. Because of Bangladesh's many rivers, ferries are an important means of transport. The ferries are often overloaded and continue to operate in poor weather; many people die each year in ferry and launch accidents. The launch Pinak 6 sank in the Padma River with more than 200 passengers aboard near Munshiganj's Louhajang Upazila in 2016.[6]

Bangladesh's ports and harbours are Chittagong, on the east coast; river ports at Dhaka, Narayanganj, Baghabari and Ashuganj, and seaports at Mongla and Payra. A deepwater port has been proposed on Sonadia Island. The country's merchant navy consisted of 306 ships, including 28 bulk carriers, four container ships, 75 cargo ships and 110 oil tankers, in 2017.[7]

Pipelines[edit]

In 2013, Bangladesh had about 2,950 kilometres (1,830 mi) of natural-gas pipelines.[7][8]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  • Sunny, Sanwar (2011). Green Buildings, Clean Transport and the Low Carbon Economy: Towards Bangladesh's Vision of a Greener Tomorrow. Germany: LAP Publishers. ISBN 978-3-8465-9333-2. 

 This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html.

External links[edit]

Transport map of Bangladesh

The 33-kilometre (21 mi) Thanchi-Alikadam Road via Dim pahar

Motorbikes on the road

First Maitree Express run between Dhaka and West Bengal, 14 April 2008
Boats are used to transport passengers and freight.
Boats are a major means of transport in Bangladesh.

0 Replies to “Railway Bangladesh Assignment Legal”

Lascia un Commento

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *