Industrial Pollution Descriptive Essay

Environmental pollution essays are narrative essays that are based on experiences in our daily lives. These essays begin with general statements and reflections on the meaning of the topic and the importance of narrative such essays. The bodies and conclusions that are described in engaging ways with up to date statistical information on pollution which makes the reader always alert and fully invited and feel to be part of the story.

How to start

The environmental pollution essays henceforth may take the form of description of different types of pollution such as sound, water, air and soil among others. Therefore, the body describes the various types of environmental contamination in each paragraph. On a separate note, the essays might outline the consequences of pollution such as global warming, extinction of resources, health hazards on people and animals, and demolition of the ecosystem where by individual paragraphs describe agricultural activities, transportation, technology and industry, residences of people and their behaviors among others. At the introduction, there is usually a brief description of the terms such as environment and pollution followed by different types of pollution exhibited on the environment or the various consequences of pollution. These form the thesis statements that are elaborated in the subsequent sections.

Example of introduction for a pollution essay:

Man is the Main Polluter

“The term environment is referred to as the surrounding of the human being. Hence it includes air, plant, water, animal life, and non-living things among others. For the purpose of peaceful coexistence, man has to make sure that all these aspects of the environment are not tampered with and at all times effectively utilized and preserved for future generation. However, the current chaotic situation in the environment is a consequence of environmental pollution. Pollution is contamination of the natural environment by either human or natural actions without rectifying such activities to the extent that they become a health hazard to all the living things. In most cases, physical activities have been blamed for pollution such as earthquakes, cyclones, volcanic eruption, storms, rain and floods among others. However, man has been the greatest environmental polluter who has caused adverse impacts to him, others, plants, and animals. Thus, the essay describes man’s different activities that have caused environmental pollution.”

How to write the body

The body of the essay will delve into the various ways and activities that man engages in which lead to environmental pollution. Every activity is described in individual paragraphs where the first sentence denotes the point. This is followed by an elaboration of the point giving evidence to support the argument in a logical sequence. Furthermore, the writer joins all these statements interestingly using transitional words to ensure there is a flow so that the reader stays engaged.  Each paragraph discusses a point separately though they are interconnected concerning the thesis statement regarding the topic.

Example of body paragraphs for an environmental pollution essay:

“One activity that man engages in is urbanization and population increase in an area. Therefore, the greatest activity that results is increased scatter of garbage and trash within his dwelling environment. Man dumps rubbish in every place that decay. However, most of this rubbish have toxic components that are released and permeate the soil to different water catchment areas such as rivers, oceans, seas, dams and boreholes. Furthermore, people directly throw garbage to these water areas which have formed special garbage islands, especially in oceans and seas. Sectors such as the Ganges River in Varanasi and Calcutta are highly polluted by waste which has bacteria hence have negatively impacted on the aquatic lives. People who live in such areas suffer from diseases such as cholera because they drink such raw water. Also, the garbage in such areas releases smell with the constant decay of materials which cause air pollution. Similarly, water is also polluted through industrial activities where items are processed or manufactured. The wastewater is channeled to rivers and seas in the locality. These waters are also contaminated with the highest levels which disrupt the aquatic life and the ecosystem such as the food chain.

Secondly, both the agriculture and the industrial sectors are activities responsible for water, air, soil and noise pollution. Man uses pesticides and fertilizers in his agricultural fields. These items have adverse effects on water, air, and soils. However, some factories that produce these chemicals have installed different water and air purification systems though such actions are minimal compared to industries existing in both developed and developing nations. Besides, many nations have not subscribed to global environmental protection programs due to the limitation of such activities in specific territories which further derails efforts to solve the universal problem.

Lastly, man is responsible for air pollution through factory emissions, burning of the fossil fuels, and transportation among others. The smoke emitted from such activities concentrates in the air that people breathe in. Consequently, this results in respiratory diseases, cancer, and vision problems among others. Also, dangerous gases are emitted in the air such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, chemical vapor and sulfur dioxide. The reaction of these gases combined with the cooling of the water vapor results in acid rains that corrode plants and other items on the earth surface. On the same note, the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere from the industries is responsible for its high concentration that causes a blanket of the atmosphere. This leads to global warming which alters the natural processes on the earth.”

How to conclude

The conclusion of environmental pollution essays entails summary of the points discussed in the body as well as a reiteration of the thesis statement. This is followed by a challenging remark that challenges the reader to reevaluate the remedies as the best solution and challenge his way of thinking regarding the topic.

Example of conclusion for a pollution essay:

“In conclusion, man is noted as the greatest polluter of the environment. This is pegged on its devastating activities such as extraction and processing of resources, increase in population that leads to damping and scatter of garbage, increases industrial activities among others. Consequently, such activities have resulted in pollution of air, water, soil, and sound. These activities have negatively impacted on environment hence their related impacts include disrupted ecosystem, destruction of aquatic life, disease, global warming and acid rains among others. However, man has realized that environmental pollution is a global phenomenon hence he has laid measures to curb the problem and has called for action of rehabilitation, protection, and conservation of the environment. However, challenges do occur due to the existence of such measures in specific regions which hinder willful joining of hands to solve the problems.”

Industrial Pollution: Types, Effects and Control of Industrial Pollution!

In order to provide daily needs of the growing population, differ­ent types of industries are setup to produce different products. The industries use raw materials, process them and produce fin­ished products. Besides the finished products, a good number of by-products are produced. Out of all the by-products, if some are in huge quantities and the processing is cost effective, the indus­trialist preserves the by- products.

If the processing of waste is a cost prohibitive one, then the industrialist throws the waste into the environment in the form of gas, liquid or solid. The gases are usually released into the atmosphere, the liquids are discharged into aquatic bodies like canals, rivers or sea and solid wastes are either dumped on the land or in aquatic bodies. In all the cases, either the air or water or land is polluted due to dumping of wastes.

Till now, there are about 17 industries which are declared to be most polluting. These include the caustic soda, cement, dis­tillery, dyes and dye intermediaries, fertilisers, iron and steel, oil refineries, paper and pulp, pesticides and pharmaceuticals, sugar, textiles, thermal power plants, tanneries and so on. The table 6.5 enlists few of the industries, their wastes (important) and the type of pollution these induce in the environment.

The wide variety of pollutants as shown above enter the envi­ronment and disturb the natural eco-system affecting the biota. Due to industrial activities, a variety of poisonous gases like NO, SO2, NO2, SO3, Cl2, CO, CO2, H2SO4 etc.- volatile chemicals, dusts etc., are liberated into the atmosphere causing acute pollution problem. Besides, the accidental leakage of poisonous gases can cause havoc.

For example, Methyl Isocyanate gas leakage from Union Carbide factory at Bhopal caused mass killing which is known as Bhopal gas tragedy. In addition to accidents, many of the above poisonous gases induce depletion of ozone layer, crea­tion of ozone hole. Green House effect, Global warming. Acid rain, destruction of monument and killing of living organisms disturbing the natural eco-systems.

Table 6.5



Wastes Produced

Type of Pollution


Caustic Soda

Mercury, Chlorine gas

Air, water and land


Cement dust, smoke

Particulate matter



Organic waste

Land and water



Ammonia, cyanide,


oxides of nitrogen,

Air and water


oxides of sulphur




Inorganic waste pigment

Land and water


Iron and steel

Smoke, gases, coal dust, fly ash, fluorine

Air, water and land



Organic and inorganic

Water and land





Oil Refineries

Smoke, toxic gases, organic waste

Air and water


Paper and Pulp

Smoke, organic waste

Air and water



Organic waste, molasses

Land and water



Smoke, particulate matter

Land and water



Organic waste



Thermal power

Fly ash, SO2 gas

Air and water


Nuclear power station

Radioactive wastes

Water and land


Food processing

Alkalies, phenols chromates, organic wastes

Water and land

The nature of the industrial waste depends upon the industrial process in which these originate and the raw materials the use.

Broadly the industrial wastes may be divided into two groups:

(a) Process waste;

(b) Chemical waste.

(A) Process Waste:

The waste generated in an industry during washing and processing of raw materials is known as process waste. The proc­ess waste may be organic or inorganic in nature depending upon the raw materials used and nature of the industry.

The organic process wastes are liberated from food processing units, distiller­ies, breweries, paper and pulp industry, sugar mills etc. The inor­ganic process wastes may be the effluents of chemical industries; caustic soda industry, paint industry, petroleum industry, pesti­cide industry etc. Both organic and inorganic process wastes are toxic to living organisms.

The solid wastes released by different industries can be di­vided in to two different groups i.e.

(a) process wastes, and

(b) packing wastes.

Since different industries use different raw materials, the qual­ity and quantity of solid wastes differ from industry to industry. Industries releasing the solid wastes in the form of fly ash is dumped on the ground which leads to soil pollution.

Some amount of fly ash also contaminate atmospheric tract causing respiratory tract disorders. Metallic industries produce a lot of solid metallic waste and large quantities of slag. In addition to the re­lease of hazardous chemical pollutants, the industries may also cause thermal pollution and noise pollution. The thermal pollution is due to release of hot water from indus­tries into aquatic bodies. The noise pollution is due to running of heavy machinery producing a lot of noise.

(B) Chemical Wastes:

The chemical substance generated as a by-product during the preparation of a product is known as chemical waste product. The chemical waste include heavy metals and their ions, deter­gents, acids and alkalies and various other toxic substances.

These are usually produced by the industries like fertiliser factories, paper and pulp industries, iron and steel industries, distilleries, sugar mills etc. These are usually liberated into nearby water bodies like rivers, lakes and seas and sometimes into lands. The entry of these chemicals into bodies may alter the pH, BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand).

The loading of suspended solids (ss), heavy metals and their ions brings about a drastic change in physiochemical nature of the water. The aquatic animals and plants absorb, accumulate and bio-concentrate the chemical wastes leading to bio magnifications and finally destroying the trophic levels and food chains of the eco-system. Hence these disturb the eco-system dynamics and eco-system balance of the nature.

Effects of Industrial Pollution:

1. On human health:

(i) It causes irritation of eye, nose, throat respiratory tracts, etc.

(ii) It increases mortality rate and morbidity rate.

(iii) A variety of particulates mainly pollens, initiate asthmatic attacks.

(iv) Chronic pulmonary diseases like bronchitis and asthma are aggravated by high concentration of SO2, NO2, particulate matter and photo-chemical smog.

(v) Certain heavy metals like lead may enter the body through lungs and cause poisoning.

2. On animal health:

In case of animals, the pollutants enter in two steps.

(i) Accumulation of the airborne contaminants in the vegeta­tion forage and prey animals.

(ii) Subsequent poisoning of the animals when they eat the contaminated food. In case of animals, three pollutants namely fluorine, arsenic and lead are responsible for most livestock dam­age.

3. On plants:

Industrial pollution have been shown to have serious adverse effects on plants. In some cases, it is found that vegetation over 150 Km. away from the source of pollutants have been found to be affected. The major pollutants affecting plants are SO2, O3, MO, NO2, NH3, HCN, Ethylene, Herbicides, PAN (Peroxy Acetyl ni­trate) etc. In the presence of pollutants, the healthy plants suffer from neurosis, chlorosis, abscission, epinasty etc.

Control of Industrial Pollution:

The ultimate object behind the measures to control pollution to maintain safety of Man, Material and Machinery (Three Ms). The implementation of control measures should be based on the prin­ciple of recovery or recycling of the pollutants and must be taken as an integral part of production i.e. never as a liability but always an asset.

Some important control measures are:

1. Control at Source:

It involves suitable alterations in the choice of raw materials and process in treatment of exhaust gases before finally discharged and increasing stock height upto 38 metres in order to ensure proper mixing of the discharged pollut­ants.

2. Selection of Industry Site:

The industrial site should be properly examined considering the climatic and topographical characteristics before setting of the industry.

3. Treatment of Industrial Waste:

The industrial wastes should be subjected to proper treatment before their discharge.

4. Plantation:

Intensive plantation in the region, considerably reduces the dust, smoke and other pollutants.

5. Stringent Government Action:

Government should take strin­gent action against industries which discharge higher amount of pollutants into the environment than the level prescribed by Pollu­tion Control Board.

6. Assessment of the Environmental Impacts:

Environmental impact assessment should be carried out regularly which intends to identify and evaluate the potential and harmful impacts of the industries on natural eco-system.

7. Strict Implementation of Environmental Protection Act:

Environment Protection Act should be strictly followed and the destroyer of the environment should be strictly punished.

Biological Concentration and Bio-Magnification:

A pollutant present in the environment makes its entry into the food chain by the producers. After the entry, these get accumulated in their cells and tissues. The primary consumers when feed upon the producers, the pollutants deposited in the body of the former are transferred into the body of the primary consumer. In addition, the primary consumer may also directly absorb some amount of pollutants from the environment.

This leads to an increase in the concentration of the pollutant in the body of the primary consumer. Again the primary consumer, is consumed by a secondary consumer and the pollutants from the body of the former are transferred into the body of latter where these get deposited.

Thus, on moving along the food chain, it is seen that concentration of the pollutants become more in the tissues of the organisms belonging to higher trophic level than the organisms belonging to lower trophic level. Hence the residual retention of the pollutants is the richest at the higher trophic level.

From the above discussion, it is clear that the pollutants get magnified to a significant level because of the food chain link up- Such type of magnification of the pollutants in a food chain, mediated by biological agents (members of different trophic levels) is known as biological magnification or bio-magnification of pollutant in eco-system. Since man is omnivorous and can have access to different trophic levels of a food chain, he receives the pollutants in large amounts which become deposited in the various tissues.

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