Child Obesity Research Paper Introduction Outline

Research Paper on Obesity

How to start a research paper on childhood obesity

Childhood obesity is one of the most-researched health issues because of its prevalence all over the world. Researching this topic, many students are unsure of how to write a research paper in an organized manner. After a writer has chosen the general topic of childhood obesity, the next step is narrowing it down further for a coherent paper. Here are some tips on how to find specific topics as well as sample outlines, thesis, and introduction.

Tips on how to start

To create a good research paper, the author must be aware of the following dos and don’ts. Do use scholarly resources only to ensure the validity and reliability of the references. In general, access databases of peer-reviewed journals, which usually have the most credible articles. If using sources that can be found online, select websites which end with .gov or .edu as they are typically backed up by research and/or logic.

Do not use invalid sources such as those found in non-academic blogs and the like as they will discredit the value of the arguments. Furthermore, assess the soundness of the references before relying on them. Check their references if they are credible as well as the logic of their arguments. After choosing several sources, type the topic “childhood obesity” in the database and scan the articles. Look for a narrower topic and focus on it. Choose a specific topic that is personally interesting for the writing process to be motivated and not merely about making the grade. Likewise, consider the required number of pages as this will affect the scope of the study. After deciding on the specific research focus, search for more articles about the subtopic and create an annotated bibliography to summarize initial findings and synthesize information later on. Write a detailed outline and fill out the information including references.

Example of an outline

Below is an example of an outline on childhood obesity.

I. Introduction
A. Prevalence of childhood obesity in the country.
B. Why is it urgent to address childhood obesity? What are its health risks?
C. Research question: What are the causes and how can parents address them?
II. Causes of Childhood Obesity
A. Genetics.
B. Poor diet.
C. Low physical activity.
D. Psychological factors.
E. Government and school policies that affect a child’s diet and physical activity.
F. Parental factors.
III. Effects of Childhood Obesity
A. Physical.
B. Social.
C. Psychological.
IV. Resolutions to Childhood Obesity at Parental Levels
A. Motivate healthy eating.
B. Model healthy living.
C. Increase physical activity.
D. Lobby for school and government policies that promote healthy eating and exercise.
V. Conclusion

Example of a thesis

Childhood obesity has potential biological and social causes, and parents should strive to respond to as many factors in order to reduce its negative effects on their children. Family adults have the power of changing the lives of their children and they should do so by being rightful role models of good health and encourage physical activity. At the same time, they can advocate for policies that encourage eating natural food and exercise. Hence, parents have vital functions to play in both preventing and resolving childhood obesity and must be proactive so that it can be stopped in their very own homes.

Example of a childhood obesity research paper introduction

The introduction has the following basic components. It should state the purpose of the research as well as the thesis. It should also describe how the student intends to approach the topic. Below is an example of an introduction:

Childhood obesity is one of the most significant health issues of the twenty-first century. Around the world, there are around 42 million of overweight children. Parents have a significant responsibility in preventing and resolving childhood obesity. The paper attempts to understand its causes and present solutions that parents can conduct. Childhood obesity has diverse possible causes including genetics and social factors with countless adverse impacts, and in order for parents to help resolve it, they require changes in their own family as well as be supportive of health policies and initiatives.

How to write body paragraphs for a research paper on childhood obesity

Before starting writing a body notice that body writing must be organized and relevant to the thesis.

Tips on body writing

First, each body must connect back to the thesis. Second, every paragraph should begin with a topic sentence that has supporting ideas or arguments. Third, all sentences must flow in a systematic manner with the right transition signals, such as the words, “Subsequently” and “In connection.” Fourth, eliminate all unnecessary or unrelated information. Fifth, the last sentence should summarize the points in the paragraph and present the transition to the next idea.

Example of the 1st body paragraph

Here is a sample of the first body paragraph using the outline:

Childhood obesity has complex and numerous causes. Genetics can make one prone to obesity. Besides genetics, a poor diet filled with sugary, fried food can increase body mass. Lack of physical activity can produce fatty tissues as well. Other factors that contribute to obesity are psychological elements, policies, and parents.

Example of the 2nd body paragraph

The second paragraph focuses on the effects of childhood obesity. Underneath is a
sample:

Several consequences result from childhood obesity. Physically, obese children are prone to medical conditions when they grow older such as fatty liver disease, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, among others. Socially, obese children can experience bullying and stigma. They may have problems making friends and become dissatisfied at school and life in general. Psychologically, children with obesity could suffer from low self-esteem as well as depression.

Example of the 3rd body paragraph

The third paragraph focuses on solutions at household levels:

First, parents should motivate healthy living by discussing the benefits of natural food versus the disadvantages of fast food. Second, adults must be models of clean living by preparing and consuming foods high in protein or vitamins and minerals. Third, family members should exercise together such as walk an hour or more each day or engage in regular sports for at least 30 minutes. Fourth, voting members must lobby for school and government policies that promote healthy eating and exercise.

How to finish a research paper: Tips on conclusion writing

The concluding paragraph finishes the frame of the research arguments. It can start with a
restated thesis. Next, it must sum up the whole essay. Also, the author should consider contextualizing the research in a broader scope to boost its relevance to the readers. Likewise, avoid introducing new topics at this point to prevent confusing readers. Furthermore, the conclusion should end with the feeling of completion or a call to action. It must have a positive note instead of a depressing sentiment.

Example of conclusion

Childhood obesity has potential biological and social causes, and parents should strive to respond to as many factors in order to reduce its negative effects on their children. Family adults have the power of changing the lives of their children and they should do so by being rightful role models of good health and encourage physical activity. At the same time, they can advocate for policies that encourage eating natural food and exercise. Hence, parents have vital functions to play in both preventing and resolving childhood obesity and must be proactive so that it can be stopped in their very own homes.

Tips on research paper revision

Revision is the last stage of research writing before submitting the final draft to your professor and for a thorough revision, here are the following tips. Remember that revising entails thinking deeply about the soundness of ideas, refining arguments, changing the order or content of paragraphs to make the flow better, and rewording awkward sentences.

First, revise early. Avoid revising at the last minute as this will result in missing problems in your paper, such as incorrect spelling and grammar. Second, have breaks during revision. After revising, take an hour or even possible, a day or two, in order to have fresh eyes that are more accurate in detecting writing weaknesses. Third, read your paper out loud as this is effective in determining unclear or awkward writing. Fourth, focus on proofreading first and remove grammar and usage mistakes. Fifth, read as the audience would. Detach the self from the work and read from the perspective of the reader. Is the paper persuasive and interesting? Is there something else that can be one for it to be better? Sixth, have another person read it and respond to feedback. Seventh, apply changes, take a rest for a day or a few days if time permits, read the paper again, and do final proofreading and editing for writing problems.

Example of revision for the 1st body paragraph

Childhood obesity has numerous, possibly interconnected internal and external causes. Genetics can make a person prone to obesity as the DNA itself may have specific markers that increase the body’s ability to retain adipose tissues. Biological factors can make a huge difference between someone who gets fat easily and another who eats anything without gaining a pound. Besides genetics, a poor diet filled with sugary, fried food can increase body mass. Lack of physical activity can result in the accumulation of fatty tissues as well. Other factors that contribute to obesity are psychological elements, policies, and parents. They can interact and raise obesity risks, such as when a policy allows fast food inside schools, thereby encouraging eating fried foods and boosting the prevalence of obesity.

OUTLINE

What is an outline?

An outline is meant to help you establish a structure for a paper you are going to write. It is a way for you to demonstrate the main argument (thesis), main points (topic sentences), and main pieces of evidence you are going to present in a paper before actually writing the paper.

Additionally, one of the essential purposes of an outline is to clearly convey the connection between the thesis and each of the topic sentences.

Outline Structure

  1. Introduction
    1. Thesis: A statement of position and overview of points of argumentation go here.
  2. Body Paragraph 1: Topic sentence goes here.
    1. Supporting evidence: A paraphrase or quote from one of your sources goes here, along with an in-text citation (to learn how to properly construct in-text citations, please see the following link: https://awc.ashford.edu/cd-in-text-citation-guide.html).
      1. Explanation of the meaning of the supporting evidence.
      2. So what? A direct statement on how the supporting evidence does in fact support the claim made in the topic sentence.
  3. Body Paragraph 2: Topic sentence goes here.
    1. Supporting evidence
      1. Explanation
      2. So what?
    2. Supporting evidence
      1. Explanation
      2. So what?
  4. Body Paragraph 3: Topic sentence goes here.
    1. Supporting evidence
      1. Explanation
      2. So what?

Sample Outline: Argumentative Paper on Obesity and Government Intervention

  1. Introduction
    1. Thesis: An individual’s weight should be a governmental concern because the medical costs associated with weight-related issues cost taxpayer money, retailers of unhealthy food need to be regulated, and children need to have better options for diet and exercise made available to them.
  2. Body Paragraph 1: The medical cost associated with weight-related issues has significantly contributed to individual taxes.
    1. Supporting evidence: “…the costs of obesity arising from individuals’ poor nutritional choices are borne by society as a whole through taxes, lost productivity, and an overburdened healthcare system. In 2008, the medical costs associated with obesity and obesity-related illnesses totaled US $147 billion in the United States” (Franck, Grandi, & Eisenberg, 2013, p. 1951).
      1. Explanation: This quote demonstrates not only the connection between obesity, medical costs, and increased taxes, but also shows the exact dollar number costs from a fairly recent year.
      2. So what? This quote supports the claim that weight-related medical issues contribute to increased taxes for all taxpayers by explaining the connection and demonstrating the high dollar costs to show that this is a current problem affecting a government process (taxation) and therefore could appropriately be addressed by government intervention.
  3. Body Paragraph 2: Another reason that weight should be considered a governmental issue is that the market for unhealthy food in America has overtaken the general food market and the government needs to actively curb the incentives to frequent these establishments.
    1. Supporting Evidence: “[M]eals are increasingly being consumed outside the home, and these meals tend to be higher in fat. A literal fat tax… theoretically would encourage individuals to opt for low-fat or nonfat alternatives” (Franck et al., 2013, p. 1950).
      1. Explanation: This quote alludes to many of the main problems with fast food consumption and explains what a fat tax would attempt to do to curb the consumption of junk food.
      2. So what? Showing that a fat tax would be able to curb overconsumption of obesity-causing fast food demonstrates the need for the government to impose such a thing.
  4. Body Paragraph 3: Finally, the government is responsible for ensuring that children have access to healthy food and exercise while in school.
    1. Supporting Evidence: A connection between Michelle Obama’s “Let’s Move!” campaign and a reduction in overall childhood obesity across America has been demonstrated (Tucker, 2013, p. 1).
      1. Explanation: This information shows the effectiveness of government-backed programs, with “Let’s Move!” as the specific example.
      2. So what? Demonstrating the effectiveness of “Let’s Move!” campaign supports the concept of government involvement in school food and exercise initiatives to help curb childhood obesity and provide children with the foundation for establishing healthy habits.

References

Franck, C., Grandi, S., & Eisenberg, M. (2013). Taxing Junk Food to Counter Obesity. American Journal of Public Health. 103.11, DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2013.301279

Tucker, C. (2013). Q&A with first lady Michelle Obama: How the Let’s Move! Campaign is changing the way kids eat, move. Nation’s Health. 43.9. Retrieved from nationshealth.com

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