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Sarojini Naidu :
- Sarojini Naidu also known as Nightingale of India, was an Indian independence activist, poet and a politician
- She was born in Hyderabad as Sarojini Chattopadhyay on 1879
- She was the First woman governor of India and the second woman president of the Indian National Congress
- Sarojini Naidu passed away on 2nd march 1949 at Lucknow,Uttarpradesh
Sarojini Naidu : (Short Essay)
Sarojini Naidu, the first Woman Governor was born in Hyderabad to a Scientist father and a Poetess mother. She was a bright child with proficiency in many languages since her Childhood. She earned a scholarship to study overseas for her play “Maher Muneer”.She got admission in King’s college, England and had the opportunity to meet English authors.
Sarojini was affected by the partition of Bengal and decided to join in the freedom movement. The leaders of the Indian freedom movement asked her to devote her intellect for the political cause. She had played an immense role in freedom struggle and partly responsible for establishing gandhian principles all over India.
Sarojini Naidu : (Brief Essay)
Not all the people in the world gets the credit of being loved by everyone. Sarojini Naidu was one such person whose birthday is honored as Women’s day in India.
Besides her role as an Indian independence activist, she was also acclaimed for her role as poetess in the field of literary. Her inspiration for poem comes from the nature, surroundings and the patriotism. She published her collection of poems as a book in 1905 under the title “Golden Threshold”, “The Bird of Time” and “The Broken Wings”. Sarojini Naidu travelled all over India for the youth welfare,woman empowerment and dignity of Labour.
She found Women’s India association with other leaders and urged the congress to involve more women in the freedom struggle. She was one among the two delegates who attended east African congress. She was elected on 1925 as the president of Indian national congress. She met her end on March 1949 at uttarpradesh.
The University of Hyderabad renamed its school as “Sarojini Naidu school of arts and communication” to honor her works for the Indian freedom movement.
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|1st Governor of United Provinces|
15 August 1947 – 2 March 1949
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Hormasji Peroshaw Mody|
(1879-02-13)13 February 1879
Hyderabad, Hyderabad State, British India
(now in Telangana, India)
|Died||2 March 1949(1949-03-02) (aged 70)|
Lucknow, United Provinces, India
|Political party||Indian National Congress|
|Spouse(s)||Govindarajulu Naidu (1898–1949)|
|Children||5; including Padmaja|
|Relatives||Harindranath Chattopadhyay, Virendranath Chattopadhyay, Suhasini Chattopadhyay, Leela Naidu|
|Alma mater||University of Madras|
King's College London
Girton College, Cambridge
|Occupation||Political activist, poet-writer|
Sarojini Naidu; néeChattopadhyay, (13 February 1879 – 2 March 1949) was a freedom fighter and poet of modern India. She was born in a BengaliHindu family at Hyderabad and was educated in Chennai, London and Cambridge. She married Dr. Govindarajulu Naidu and settled down in Hyderabad. She took part in the National Movement, became a follower of Gandhiji (Mahatma Gandhi) and fought for the attainment of Swaraj. She became the President of Indian National Congress and later she was appointed the Governor of the United Provinces, now Uttar Pradesh. Known as the 'Nightingale of India', she was also a noted poet. Her poetry includes children's poems, nature poems, patriotic poems and poems of love and death.
Early life and family
Sarojini was born in a BengaliHindu family in Hyderabad to Aghorenath Chattopadhyay and Barada Sundari Devi Chattopadhyay on 13 February 1879. Her parental home was at Brahmangaon in Bikrampur (in present-day Bangladesh). Her father, Aghorenath Chattopadhyay, with a doctorate of Science from Edinburgh University, settled in Hyderabad, where administered Hyderabad college, which later became Nizam College in Hyderabad. Her mother, Barada Sundari Devi Chattopadhyay, was a poet and used to write poetry in Bengali.
She was the eldest of the eight siblings. Her brother Virendranath Chattopadhyaya was a revolutionary and her other brother, Harindranath was a poet, a dramatist, and an actor.
Sarojini Naidu, having passed her matriculation examination from the University of Madras, took a four-year break from her studies. In 1895, the Nizam Scholarship Trust founded by the 6th Nizam, Mir Mahbub Ali Khan, gave her the chance to study in England, first at King's College London and later at Girton College, Cambridge.
Sarojini met Paidipati Govindarajulu Naidu, a physician, and at the age of 19, after finishing her studies, she married him. At that time, Inter-caste marriages were not as common as they are today, but both their families approved their marriage. The couple had five children. Their daughter Paidipati Padmaja also joined the independence movement, and was part of the Quit India Movement. She was appointed the Governor of the State of West Bengal soon after Indian independence.
Naidu joined the Indian national movements in the wake of partition of Bengal in 1905. She came in contact with Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Rabindranath Tagore, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Annie Besant, C. P. Ramaswami Iyer, Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru.
In 1915–18, she travelled to different regions in India delivering lectures on social welfare, women's empowerment and nationalism. She also helped to establish the Women's Indian Association (WIA) in 1917. She was sent to London along with Annie Besant, President of home rule league and Women's Indian Association, to present the case for the women's vote to the Joint Select Committee.
In April 1947 she was present at the Asian Relations Conference in Delhi where the Tibetan Government Representative, Sampho Theiji, said, "In a similar way we are very glad to meet representatives from all the Asian countries in this Conference and we wish to express our sincere gratitude to the great Indian leaders, Mahatma Gandhi, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and Mrs. Sarojini Naidu, and to all the distinguished representatives who have gathered in this Conference."
In 1925, Naidu presided over the annual session of Indian National Congress at Cawnpore (now Kanpur).
In 1929, she presided over East African Indian Congress in South Africa. She was awarded the Kaisar-i-Hind Medal by the British government for her work during the plague epidemic in India.
In 1931, she participated in the round-table conference with Gandhi and Madan Mohan Malaviya.
She played a leading role in the Civil Disobedience Movement and was jailed along with Gandhi and other leaders. In 1942, she was arrested during period of the "Quit India"
Sarojini Naidu began writing at the age of twelve. Her Persian play, Maher Muneer, impressed the [Nawab of Hyderabad].
In 1905, her first collection of poems, named The Golden Threshold was published. The volume bore an introduction by Arthur Symons. Her poems were admired by prominent Indian politicians like Gopal Krishna Gokhale.
The Feather of The Dawn which contained poems written in 1927 by Naidu was edited and published posthumously in 1961 by her daughter Padmaja Naidu.
Death and legacy
Naidu died of cardiac arrest at 3:30 a.m. (IST) on 2 March 1949 at the Government House in Lucknow. Upon her return from New Delhi on 15 February, she was advised rest by her doctors, and all official engagements were cancelled. Her health deteriorated substantially and bloodletting was performed on the night of 1 March after she complained of severe headache. She died after collapsing following a fir of cough. Naidu was said to have asked the nurse attending to her to sing to her at about 10:40 p.m. (IST) which put her to sleep. The last rites were performed at the Gomati River.
Naidu is commemorated in the names of several institutions, including the Sarojini Naidu College for Women, Sarojini Naidu Medical College, Sarojini Devi Eye Hospital and Sarojini Naidu School of Arts and Communication, University of Hyderabad.
Aldous Huxley wrote "It has been our good fortune, while in Bombay, to meet Mrs. Sarojini Naidu, the newly elected President of the All-India Congress and a woman who combines in the most remarkable way great intellectual power with charm, sweetness with courageous energy, a wide culture with originality, and earnestness with humour. If all Indian politicians are like Mrs. Naidu, then the country is fortunate indeed."
Her 135th birth anniversary (2014) was marked by a Google Doodle on Google India's homepage.
Main article: Golden Threshold
The Golden Threshold is an off-campus annexe of University of Hyderabad. The building was the residence of Naidu's father Aghornath Chattopadhyay, the first Principal of Hyderabad College. It was named after Naidu's collection of poetry. Golden Threshold now houses Sarojini Naidu School of Arts & Communication of University of Hyderabad.
During the Chattopadhyay family's residence, it was the centre of many reformist ideas in Hyderabad, in areas ranging from marriage, education, women's empowerment, literature and nationalism.
Each year links to its corresponding "year in poetry" article:
- 1905: The Golden Threshold, published in the United Kingdom (text available online)
- 1912: The Bird of Time: Songs of Life, Death & the Spring, published in London
- 1917: The Broken Wing: Songs of Love, Death and the Spring, including "The Gift of India" (first read in public in 1915)
- 1916: Muhammad Jinnah: An Ambassador of Unity
- 1943: The Sceptred Flute: Songs of India, Allahabad: Kitabistan, posthumously published
- 1961: The Feather of the Dawn, posthumously published, edited by her daughter, Padmaja Naidu
- 1971:The Indian Weavers
- ^Seline Augestine. "NIGHTINGALE of India". The Hindu. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
- ^Lilyma Ahmed. "Naidu, Sarojini". Banglapedia : National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh. Retrieved 5 August 2015.
- ^ abc"Biography of Sarojini Naidu". PoemHunter.Com. Retrieved 25 March 2012.
- ^"Padmaja Naidu Dies at 75; ExWest Bengal Governor". The New York Times. Associated Press. 3 May 1975. Retrieved 19 February 2018.
- ^Pasricha, Ashu (2009). The political thought of Annie Besant. New Delhi: Concept Pub. Co. p. 24. ISBN 978-81-8069-585-8.
- ^"Asian Relations Conference, 1947 - Legal Materials on Tibet". sites.google.com. Retrieved 2017-08-18.
- ^Paranjape, Makarand (2013). Making India: Colonialism, National Culture, and the Afterlife of Indian English Authority. New Delhi: Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg New York japan and Amaryllis, an imprint of Manjul Publishing House Pvt., Ltd., New Delhi. p. 190. ISBN 978-94-007-4660-2.
- ^Jain, Reena. "Sarojini Naidu". Stree Shakti. Retrieved 25 March 2012.
- ^Sarkar, [editors], Amar Nath Prasad, Bithika (2008). Critical response to Indian poetry in English. New Delhi: Sarup & Sons. p. 11. ISBN 978-81-7625-825-8.
- ^Nasta, Susheila (2012-11-16). India in Britain: South Asian Networks and Connections, 1858-1950. p. 213. ISBN 978-0-230-39271-7. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
- ^"Mrs. Sarojini Naidu Passes Away". The Indian Express. 3 March 1949. p. 1. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
- ^"Last Rites Of Sarojini Naidu At Lucknow". The Indian Express. 4 March 1949. p. 1. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
- ^Huxley, Aldous (1926). Jesting Pilate: Travels Through India, Burma, Malaya, Japan, China, and America. Paragon House, New York. p. 22.
- ^"Google Doodle celebrates Sarojini Naidu's 135th Birthday". news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
- ^"Sarojini Naidu School of Arts & Communication". Retrieved 12 February 2014.
- ^Sharma, Kaushal Kishore (1 January 2003). "Sarojini Naidu: A Preface to Her Poetry". Feminism, Censorship and Other Essays. Sarup & Sons. pp. 56–57. ISBN 978-81-7625-373-4. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
- ^Knippling, Alpana Sharma, "Chapter 3: Twentieth-Century Indian Literature in English", in Natarajan, Nalini, and Emanuel Sampath Nelson, editors, Handbook of Twentieth-century Literatures of India (Google books link), Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1996, ISBN 978-0-313-28778-7, retrieved 10 December 2008
- ^ abcVinayak Krishna Gokak, The Golden Treasury Of Indo-Anglian Poetry (1828–1965), p 313, New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi (1970, first edition; 2006 reprint), ISBN 81-260-1196-3, retrieved August 6, 2010
- ^Sisir Kumar Das, "A History of Indian Literature 1911–1956: Struggle for Freedom: Triumph and Tragedy", p 523, New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi (1995), ISBN 81-7201-798-7; retrieved 10 August 2010
- ^"Jinnah in India's history". The Hindu. 12 August 2001. Retrieved 25 March 2012.
- ^Lal, P., Modern Indian Poetry in English: An Anthology & a Credo, p 362, Calcutta: Writers Workshop, second edition, 1971 (however, on page 597 an "editor's note" states contents "on the following pages are a supplement to the first edition" and is dated "1972")
- ^"Indian Weavers". Poem Hunter. Retrieved 25 March 2012.
- Gupta, Indra (2004). India's 50 most illustrious women (2nd ed.). New Delhi : Icon Publications.
- Baig, Tara Ali (1985). Sarojini Naidu : portrait of a patriot. New Delhi: Congress Centenary (1985) Celebrations Committee, AICC (I).
- Ramachandran Nair, K. R. (1987). Three Indo-Anglian poets : Henry Derozio, Toru Dutt, and Sarojini Naidu. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.